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Epidemiology -An Introduction

Study natural history

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases or states in population groups and the application of …

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Causal Concepts

epidemiologic triad

According to Rothman: Any event, act, or condition preceding disease or illness without which disease would not have occurred or …

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Investigation of Epidemic

Investigation of an Epidemic

Epidemic is the unusual occurrence in a community or region of disease, specific health-related behavior (e.g. smoking) or other health …

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Bias in Research Studies

confounding example

What is Bias? An error in sampling or testing that systematically under- or over-represents one outcome (answer) over the other. …

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Spurious Association, Multifactorial Causation and Evidence of Causation

parallel and cross over designs

Spurious Association Sometimes an observed association between a disease and suspected factor may not be real. For example a study …

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Quasi Experimental Studies

types of epidemiological studies

Quasi experimental designs are based on the same structure as experimental designs but lack the randomization, control, or both. These …

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Non-Randomized Trials

types of epidemiological studies

Trial is from the French ‘trier’ (to try). Trial may be: •    Clinical trial –in which we apply therapeutic interventions …

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Randomized Controlled Trials

Randomized controlled trials designs

An epidemiological experiment in which subjects in a population are randomly allocated into groups, usually called study and control groups …

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Cohort Studies

Cohort studies

Cohort is an ancient Roman military unit of 300-600 men, a group of soldiers marching forward in battle. Cohort studies …

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Differences between Case Control and Cohort Studies

Case control studies

The differences between case control and cohort studies may be summarized as follows: Case Control Study Cohort Study •       Proceeds …

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