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Femoral Artery

Femoral artery, a continuation of external iliac artery, enters the thigh behind the inguinal ligament. It lies midway between the anterior superior iliac spine and symphysis pubis. Femoral artery is the main supply to the lower limb.

Femoral artery and its main branches:

Grey’s Anatomy 20th edition

It descends almost vertically towards the adductor tubercle on femur and ends at the opening in the adductor magnus. It thus continues through the popliteal fossa as the popliteal artery.



In the upper part it is related anteriorly to the skin and fascia. In the lower part, it lies behind the sartorious.


Femoral artery lies on the psoas and separates it from the hip joint, pectineus and adductor longus.


Medially located is the femoral vein in the upper part.


Femoral nerve and its branches are located laterally.

Femoral artery in the region of femoral shealth

Grey’s Anatomy 20th edition


1. Superficial circumflex iliac artery:

Superficial circumflex iliac artery is a small branch which runs to the anterior superior iliac spine.

2. Superficial epigastric artery:

It crosses the inguinal ligament to the region of the umbilicus.

3. Superficial external pudendal artery:

Moves medially to supply the skin of the scrotum or labium majus.

4. Deep external pudendal artery:

Also moves medially to supply the skin of the scrotum and labium majus.

5. Descending genicular branch:

Arises near the termination of femoral artery and supplies the knee joint.

6. Profunda femoris artery:

Profunda femoris arises on the lateral side of the femoral artery in the femoral triangle about 1.5 inch (4 cm) below the inguinal ligament. It passes medially behind the femoral vessels to enter the medial fascial compartment of the thigh. It terminates by becoming the 4th perforating artery. It gives medial and lateral femoral circumflex arteries at the origin. During its course, it also gives  three perforating arteries.

It descends in the interval between the adductor longus and brevis muscles and lies on the adductor magnus.

Branches of Profunda femoris artery:

Medial femoral circumflex artery:

It passes backwards between the muscles that form the floor of the femoral triangle. It gives muscular branches in the medial compartment of thigh. It also takes part in forming the cruciate anastomosis.

Lateral femoral circumflex artery:

It lies laterally between the terminal branches of the femoral nerve. It breaks into branches which supply the muscles of the region. It also takes part in forming the cruciate anastomosis.

Perforating arteries:

The perforating arteries pierce the muscle layers and supply them. They terminate by anastomosing together, or with inferior gluteal, circumflex femoral, muscular branches or the popliteal artery.

Grey’s Anatomy 20th edition

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  1. wonderful illustration of vein engraving

  2. wondeful illustration of vein engraved

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