Temporal Region


n      Situated on the side of head

n      Bounded above by superior temporal line & below by zygomatic arch

n      Infratemporal fossa is situated beneath base of skull, between pharynx & ramus of mandible

n      Both communicate deep to zyg arch


q     Temporalis muscle and its covering fascia

q     Deep temporal nerves and vessels

q     Auriculotemporal nerve

q     Superficial temporal artery


n      Origin: from bony floor of temporal fossa and   deep surface of temp fascia

n      Insertion: converge to tendon,which passes deep to zyg arch n inserted on coronoid process n ant border of ramus

n      N.S: deep temporal n (br of ant div of mandibular div of trigem N)

n      Action: ant n sup fibers elevate mandible. Post fibers retract mandible


n      Covers temporal muscle above zyg arch

n      Attached above to sup temporal line & below to upper border of zygomatic

n      Its deep surface gives origin to temporal muscles


n      Two in no.

n      Arise from anterior div of mandibular nerve

n      Emerge from upper border of lateral pterygoid muscle and enter deep surface of temporal muscle


n      Branch of posterior division of mandibular nerve

n      Emerges from upper border of parotid gland behind TMJ

n      Crosses root of zygoma, behind superficial temporal artery and in front of the auricle

n      Dictributed to skin of auricle, ext auditory meatus, scalp over temporal region


n      A terminal branch of ECA

n      Emerges from upper border of parotid, behind TMJ

n      Crosses root of zygoma, in front of auriculotemporal N & auricle

n      Here its pulsations felt

n      Ascends onto the scalp and divide into anterior and posterior divisions

Infratemporal Region

q     It is an irregular space, deep and inferior to the

zygomatic arch, deep to ramus of mandible, and posterior to the maxilla.


q     Lateral and medial pterygoid, tendon of

temporalis muscles

q       Maxillary artery

q       Pterygoid venous plexus

q       Mandibular nerve and  chorda tympani


q       Otic ganglion


n      Origin: upper head arises from infratemporal surface of greater wing of sphenoid;  lower head arises from the lateral surface lateral pterygoid

n      Insertion: two heads converge as they pass backward and are inserted into front of neck of mandible and articular disc of TMJ

n      N.S.: Anterior  division of mandibular division of trigeminal nerve

n      Action: pulls neck of mandible forward with articular disc during process of opening of mouth; acting with medial pterygoid of same side, it pulls neck of mandible forward with articular disc, causing jaw to rotate around opposite condyle, as in chewing


n      Sensory & motor roots of mandibular nerve emerge from skull through foramen ovale

n      Immediately below the foramen,small motor root of mandibular nerve unites with large sensory root

n      Mandibular nerve now descends and divides into a small anterior and a large posterior division

n      Branches from main trunk:

q     Meningeal branch

q     Nerve to medial pterygoid– 2 bràotic ganglionàto tensor tympani n tensor veli palatini

q     Branches from anterior division:

q     masseteric & 2 deep temporal n and nerve to lateral pterygoid and one sensory (buccal)

Branches from posterior division:

n      Auriculotemporal N (sensory)

n      Lingual N (sensory)

n      Inferior alveolar N (motor)


n      Small parasympathetic ganglion – functionally assoc with CN 9

n      Situated just below foramen ovale n medial to mandibular nerve

n      Adheres to nerve to medial pterygoid, but functionally completely separate

n      Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate in inf salivary nucleus of CN9

n      Leave CN 9 by its tympanic br n then pass via tympanic plexus n lesser petrosal nerve to otic ganglion. Post ganglionic join auriculotemporal N. conveyed by this neve to parotid

Chorda tympani

n      Branch of facial nerve in temporal nerve

n      Enters infratemporal fossa thru petrotympanic fissure and runs downward and forward to join lingual nerve

n      Carries preganglionic parasym fibers to submandibular & sublingual glands

n      Also carries taste fibers from ant 2/3 of tongue n floor of mouth; cell bodies of taste fibers in sensory geniculate ganglion of facial Nerve n end by synapsing with cells of nucleus solitarius in Pons.

Maxillary artery

n      Larger terminal br of ECA in parotid gland

n      Arises behind neck of mandible.

n      Leaves infratemporal fossa ,entering pterygopalatine fossa

n      Branches in infratemporal fossa:

q     Inferior alveolar artery

q     Middle meningeal A– enters thru foramen spinosum– to meninges

q     Small br– lining of ext auditory meatus, tympanic membr

q     Muscular br– muscles of mastication

Branches of 1st (mandibular) part

q     Deep auricular artery

q      Anterior tympanic artery

q      Middle meningeal artery

q      Accessory meningeal artery

q      Inferior alveolar artery

Branches of 2nd (Pterygoid) part

q     Deep temporal artery

q      Pterygoid artery

q      Masseteric artery

q      Buccal artery

Branches of 3rd (Pterygopalatine) part

q     Posterior superior alveolar artery

q      Infraorbital artery

q      Descending palatine artery

q      Artery of pterygoid canal

q      Pharyngeal artery

q      Sphenopalatine artery

Pterygoid venous plexus

n      Receives veins, corresponding to branches of maxillary artery

n      Its posterior end drained by maxillary vein.

n      Communicates with facial vein thru deep facial vein

Maxillary vein

n      Drains post end of pterygoid venous plexus

n      Runs backward with max artery, on medial side of neck of mandible

n      Joins superficial temporal vein within parotid to form retromandibular vein

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One comment

  1. A very helpful site,good job…

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