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A Concept of Research Process

The process of research has the following steps in logical sequence:

1.    Identify the research question

•    Define research area or problems
•    Identify or develop the research question
•    Describe the purpose and importance of research
•    Review scientific literature
•    Identify independent and dependent response variables
•    State hypothesis

2.    Design the study

•    Plan the research setting
•    Design the study and sampling technique
•    Select appropriate number of subjects by inclusion and exclusion criteria
•    Select data collection techniques
•    Choose methods of testing and measurement
•    Perform experiment/measurement on samples in controlled conditions

3.    Data Analysis

•    Record the raw data on worksheet and make tables for compiling ‘raw data’.
•    Statistical procedures are applied to summarize quantitative information
•    It involves analyzing data, interpreting and making valid conclusions
•    The research hypothesis is supported or rejected
•    Analysis should also lead to new question that will stimulate further study

4.    Communication

•    Researcher has the responsibility to share findings with the appropriate audience so that others can apply the information either in clinical practice or further research
•    Report the findings in journal articles, oral presentations, poster presentations or thesis, etc.

  Questions you must ask Steps Important Elements
Step 1 What is the problem and why it should be studied? Selection, analysis and statement of research problem Problem identification Prioritizing problem Analysis Justification
Step 2 What information is already available? Literature review Literature and other related information  
Step 3 Why do we want to carry out the research? What do we hope to achieve? Formation of research question General and specific objectives Hypothesis
Step 4 What additional data do we need to meet our research objectives? How are we going to collect this information? Research Variables Type of study Data collection techniques Sampling Plan for data collection Plan for data processing and analysis Ethical considerations Pre-test or pilot study
Step 5 Who will do what, and when? Work plan Personnel Time table
Step 6 How will the project be administered? How will utilization of results be ensured? Plan for project administration and utilization of results Administration Monitoring Identification of potential users  
Step 7 What resources do we need to carry out the study? What resources do we have? Budget Material support and equipment Money
Step 8 How will we present our proposal to relevant authorities and potential funding agencies Proposal summary Development of a research proposal is often a cyclical process

 

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