Childhood is divided into following age-periods:
• Infancy ( up to 1 year of age)
• Neonatal period (first 28 days of life)
• Post neonatal period (28th day- to 1 yr)
• Pre-school age (1-4 years)
• School age (5-14 years)
Infant mortality is the death of the child under 1 year of age.
Infant Mortality Rate
It is the ratio of infant deaths registered in a given year to the total number of live births registered in the same year (usually expressed as a rate per thousand live births.)
Death of a fetus weighing 1000 g or equivalent to 28 weeks of gestation.
Still Birth Rate
Fetal deaths weighing over 1000 g at Birth during the year divided by total live + stillbirths over 1000g at birth during the year
Peri-natal Mortality Rate
Perinatal period is defined as lasting from 28th week of gestation to the seventh day after birth. Peri- Natal Mortality Rate includes both late fetal deaths (still birth) and early neonatal deaths.
Late fetal deaths (28 weeks gestation & more) + early neonatal deaths (first week) in one year divided by late fetal deaths + Live births in the same year.
Neonatal Mortality Rate
These are deaths occurring during the neonatal period, commencing at birth and ending 28 completed days after birth.These include:
• Early neonatal deaths
• Late neonatal deaths
Number of deaths of children under 28 days of age in a year divided by total live births in the same year
Early Neonatal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths of children<1 week of age in a year divided by total live births in the same year.
Late Neonatal Mortality Rate
Number of deaths of children after 7th day till 28th day of age in a year divided by total live births in the same year.
Post Neonatal Mortality Rate
Total number of deaths of children between 28 days and one year of age in a given year divided by total live births in the same year.
1 – 4 year Mortality Rate (Child Death Rate)
No. of deaths of children aged 1-4 years during a year divided by total no. of children aged 1-4 years at the middle of the year.
Mid-year estimated population means population counted on the 1st of July.
Under 5 Mortality Rate/ Child Mortality Rate
Number of deaths of < 5 years of age in a given year divided by total number of live births in the same year.
Child Survival Index
A child survival rate per 1000 births can be simply calculated by subtracting the Under -5 mortality rate from 1000. Dividing this figure by ten shows the percentage of those who survive to the age of 5 years.
Child Survival Index points towards the need for preventive services through:
• Breast feeding
• Adequate nutrition
• Clean water
• Oral Rehydration Therapy
• Birth spacing