FOOD PROVIDES FUEL
Ø Body requires fuel to provide energy for cellular metabolism and repair, organ function, growth & body movement.
Ø Food is the fuel that keeps the machine that is our body running.
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Ø Carbohydrate: 45% – 65%
Ø Fat: 20% – 35%
Ø Protein: 10% – 35%
(Basal Metabolic Rate)
“The rate of energy expended at rest (as Kcal/h) is measured as basal metabolic rate(BMR) or resting metabolic rate.(RMR)”.
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS ARE BASED ON:
Ø Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE)
Resting Energy Expenditure(REE)
“-Energy needed to maintain life sustaining ( respiration, circulation, temperature, muscle tone etc). Accounts for 60-75% of total energy expenditure.”
ENERGY FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
n Physical activity increases energy needs above basal energy needs.
n Caloric expenditure is dependent on:
n Type of activity
n Weight of the person
n Usually 15—-30% of total energy expenditure.
TWO OTHER ENERGY EXPENDITURES.
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)
Energy used to digest foods and beverages, and absorb and process the nutrients
Approximately 10% of total energy expenditure.
Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)
Energy spent on involuntary skeletal muscle activity such as fidgeting, shivering, and maintaining muscle tone or body posture.
May account for 800 kcal/day.
REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE
Ø DIET COMPOSITION
Ø PORTION SIZE
Ø GI SENSATIONS
Ø NEUROLOGICAL& HORMONAL FACTORS.
Ø ENVIRONMENTAL&SOCIAL FACTORS.
(2 compartment model)
Ø Lean Body Mass (LBM):
(bones, muscles, tissues, organs)
70 kg person with 20% body fat:
• Lean tissue: 70 kg x .80 = 56 kg
• Fat tissue: 70 kg x .20 = 14 kg
EXCESS ABDOMINAL FAT,
Ø Raised blood lipid levels.
Ø Glucose intolerance.
Ø Insulin resistance.
Ø High blood pressure
Ø Increased risk of heart disease
Ø Increased risk of DM
HOW DO WE MANAGE OUR WEIGHT?
BODY MASS INDEX (BMI)
Ø body weight (in Kilogrammes) divided by the square of height (in meters),expressed in units of Kg/m2.
Weight in (Kgs)
VALUES OF BMI
< 16 malnourished
30-34.99 grade-I obesity
35-39.99 grade-II obesity
>40 grade-III obesity
Ø Fat Cell Theory.
Ø Set Point Theory.
“Weight management is the adoption of healthful and sustainable eating and exercise behaviors’ indicated for reduced disease risk and improved feelings of energy and wellbeing.”
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT MEASURES
Ø Adopting healthy life style.
Ø Appropriate diet.
Ø Total calories.
Ø Fat calories.
Ø Complex carbohydrates.
Ø Eating habits.
Ø Physical activity.
Ø Thinking & emotions.
WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME
Ø Sound weight management programme.
Ø Self acceptance.
Ø Desire for change.
Ø Cognitive behaviour change strategies.
Ø Adequate exercise.
Ø Balanced diet with moderate calorie restriction.