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Nutrition

FOOD PROVIDES FUEL

Ø      Body requires fuel to provide energy for cellular metabolism and repair, organ function, growth & body movement.

Ø      Food is the fuel that keeps the machine that is our body running.

Photo by karigee

ENERGY RECOMMENDATIONS:

Ø      Carbohydrate:   45% – 65%

Ø        Fat:                   20% – 35%

Ø        Protein:            10% – 35%

BMR
(Basal Metabolic Rate)

Definition:

“The rate of energy expended at rest (as Kcal/h) is measured as basal metabolic rate(BMR) or resting metabolic rate.(RMR)”.

ENERGY REQUIREMENTS ARE BASED ON:

Ø      Basal Energy Expenditure  (BEE)

or

Resting Energy Expenditure(REE)

“-Energy needed to maintain life sustaining ( respiration, circulation, temperature, muscle tone etc). Accounts for 60-75% of total energy expenditure.”

ENERGY FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

n      Physical activity increases energy needs above basal energy needs.

n      Caloric expenditure is dependent on:

n      Type of activity

n      Duration

n      Intensity

n      Weight of the person

n      Usually  15—-30% of total energy expenditure.

TWO OTHER ENERGY EXPENDITURES.

Thermic Effect of Food (TEF)

Energy used to digest foods and beverages, and absorb and process the nutrients

Approximately 10%  of total energy expenditure.

Non-exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT)

Energy spent on involuntary skeletal muscle activity such as fidgeting, shivering, and maintaining muscle tone or body posture.

May account for 800 kcal/day.

REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE

Ø      HUNGER

Ø      SATIATION

Ø      STAITY

Ø      APPETITE

Ø      DIET COMPOSITION

Ø      PORTION SIZE

Ø      GI SENSATIONS

Ø      TEMPERATURE

Ø      NEUROLOGICAL& HORMONAL FACTORS.

Ø      ENVIRONMENTAL&SOCIAL FACTORS.

BODY COMPOSITION

(2 compartment model)

Ø      Fat

Ø      Lean Body Mass (LBM):
(bones, muscles, tissues, organs)

70 kg person with 20% body fat:

•         Lean tissue:                  70 kg x .80 = 56 kg

•         Fat tissue:                     70 kg x .20 = 14 kg

EXCESS ABDOMINAL FAT,

Ø      Raised blood lipid levels.

Ø      Glucose intolerance.

Ø      Insulin resistance.

Ø      High blood pressure

Ø      Increased risk of heart disease

Ø      Increased risk of DM

HOW DO WE MANAGE OUR WEIGHT?

BODY MASS INDEX  (BMI)

Ø      body weight (in Kilogrammes) divided by the square of height (in meters),expressed in units of Kg/m2.

Weight in (Kgs)

BMI=    _______________

2

Height       (m)

VALUES OF BMI

< 16          malnourished

16-18.99   underweight

19-24.99   normal

25-29.99   pre-obese/overweight

30-34.99   grade-I obesity

35-39.99    grade-II obesity

>40            grade-III obesity

WEIGHT REGULATION

Ø         Fat Cell Theory.

Ø         Set Point Theory.

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

v     Definition:

“Weight management  is the adoption of healthful and sustainable eating and exercise behaviors’ indicated for reduced disease risk and improved feelings of energy and wellbeing.”

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT MEASURES

Ø      Adopting healthy life style.

Ø      Appropriate diet.

Ø      Total calories.

Ø      Fat calories.

Ø      Complex carbohydrates.

Ø      Proteins.

Ø      Eating habits.

Ø      Physical activity.

Ø      Thinking & emotions.

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME
(components)

Ø      Sound weight management programme.

Ø      Self acceptance.

Ø      Desire for change.

Ø      Cognitive behaviour change strategies.

Ø      Adequate exercise.

Ø      Balanced diet with moderate calorie restriction.

Want a clearer concept, also see

Case based learning on nutrition

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